Chemistry

Solutions


The mixtures may be homogeneous or heterogeneous.

Homogeneous mixtures have a distinct phase. Heterogeneous mixtures have two or more distinct phases.

Solution It is a homogeneous mixture between two or more substances. The process used to obtain this mixture is called dissolution.

A solution is always formed by solute and solvent.

Solute - substance that will be dissolved.
Solvent - substance that dissolves.

Water is called a universal solvent. This is because it dissolves many substances and is present in many solutions.

Solutions can be formed by any combination involving the three physical states of matter: solid, liquid and gas.

Examples of solutions in our daily lives:

- hydrated alcohol
- acetone
- mineral water
- saline

Dispersal - are systems in which a substance is spread as small particles in a second substance.

An example is mixing water and sand in a glass. At first the mixture becomes cloudy, but over time the larger particles will settle to the bottom of the glass.

Even so, the water is still cloudy at the top. The water will not be completely free of sand.

According to the size of the particles, we can classify these dispersions into true solution, colloid and suspension.

Following is the average diameter of the dispersed particles:

Dispersal

Average diameter

Real solutions

Between 0 and 1nm

Colloids

Between 1 and 1,000nm

Suspensions

Over 1,000nm

Note 1nm (nanometer) = 1.10-9m